ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF
BOOKS AND ARTICLES
A FEW WORDS ABOUT OUR SELECTIONS
To keep this list manageable, certain limits had to be drawn. The items presented are readily available published works, have informational and entertainment value, are substantial in their content, and are known to be reasonably accurate. The majority are books or articles from railfan journals. Items which are not generally available are not included (such as archival material or some older items held only by a single library and not available for borrowing), purely statistical works such as ICC reports, newspaper articles except for major features, and "wild" photos from gallery sections of railfan magazines. Since the choices are purely subjective, these limits sometimes become a bit fuzzy, and some exceptions were made for items of value.
Demoro, Harre. "Sacramento Northern Railway." NATIONAL RAILWAY HISTORICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN, Vol. 37, No. 6. Philadelphia, Pa., National Railway Historical Society: 1972. A concise and well-written historical account, this article is divided into two parts separating the north and south end histories. It features many clear photos, particularly of the seldom-noted electric locomotives. Included are brief bibliographical references to other printed sources.
Dotson, Irma McGinnis. DANVILLE BRANCH OF THE OAKLAND, ANTIOCH & EASTERN RAILWAY. Danville, Calif., Museum of the San Ramon Valley: 1996. It is amazing that Ms. Dotson could squeeze 212 pages out of what was one of the least known OA&E branches (1914-1924), but it was a line of great character. The Danville Branch was home to combine/locomotive 1051, a very ugly flat-roofed monstrosity that was already ancient when the OA&E rebuilt it from a Central Pacific car.
Harrison, James H. SACRAMENTO NORTHERN GALLERY. Bellflower, Calif., Shade Tree Books: 2002. An excellent SN photo book, Harrison presents but a portion of the his personal photo collection. The text is brief, and the photo cutlines contain a number of errors. However, 96 pages of photos, many never before published, make this book a must for any SN collection.
Swett, Ira L. CARS OF SACRAMENTO NORTHERN. South Gate, Calif., Interurbans: 1972 (also 1963 edition). A comprehensive history of all known SN electric equipment. It is divided into separate north and south end sections, with chapters on each major block of equipment. This book includes many rare photos, several plans and a disposition list of all passenger cars and electric locomotives. Coverage of cabooses is weak, especially in the post-war years, and freight cars are almost completely ignored. No mention is made of diesels.
Swett, Ira L. SACRAMENTO NORTHERN. Glendale, Calif., Interurban Press: 1981 (also 1962, and 1971 editions; issued in reprint during 1998 by Pentrex). For years, this has been the standard work on the SN. Like the previously cited Swett book, this work is again divided into sections for north and south ends, each covering respective main lines, branches, streetcars and freight operation, plus special topics such as the merger, the Bay Bridge, etc. Brief notes on the dieselized lines are also given with a few photos in the most recent edition. The text is choppy and often lacks details. It is fully illustrated with great photos, timetables, and maps.
Swett, Ira L. SACRAMENTO NORTHERN. Los Angeles, Calif., Interurban Press: 1949 and 1951 editions. Swett's first effort on the SN deserves to be listed separately. The presentation is poor, with badly laid-out pages and many photos printed at thumbnail size, but this book includes a lot of information and pictures that were not included in his later works.
Swett, Ira L. SACRAMENTO NORTHERN ALBUM. Cerritos, Calif., Interurbans: 1973 (also 1963 edition). Rarest of the Swett books, this work is mainly overflow photos from the other volumes, though there is some duplication. There is little text, but many fine pictures.
Trimble, Paul C. SACRAMENTO NORTHERN RAILWAY. Charleston, S.C., Arcadia Publishing: 2005. This 128 page book is primarily a photo album, with over 200 images, some never before published. The author follows the time honored north/south division, plus a chapters on terminals, and the combined freight operation. The text is minimal, with only section introductions and photo cutlines (Arcadia's standard format). Some photo coverage is given to the Key System, Tidewater Southern, Central California Traction Co., and Sacramento City Lines. Also provided are a few photos of remaining right-of-way and preserved equipment, mostly at the Western Railway Museum.
LESSER WORKS, ARTICLES, AND BOOK CHAPTERS
-----. "End of an Era, 25 Years on Sacramento Northern." WESTERN RAILROADER, Vol. 27, no. 7 (issue no. 294). San Mateo, Calif.: July 1964. While very short on text, this brief article includes eight photos of excursions over the SN at various times. Of particular interest are two shots of a 1939 excursion pulled by Cowell Portland Cement Co. 0-6-0 No. 1, and identical Bay Point & Clayton No. 2. The BP&C was an obscure shortline owned by Cowell Portland Cement Company that connected with the SN near Port Chicago.
-----. "End of Napa Valley Route." WESTERN RAILROADER, Vol. 37, no. 408. San Mateo, Calif.: May 1974. While not actually an SN piece, this article tells the story of San Francisco & Napa Valley operations at the Mare Island Naval Shipyard. Included are several photos and roster information about SF&NV 30 and 40, which were partly owned by the SN and later operated as SN 147 and 141 respectively. Also included are a map, a reprint of a news story on the line's transfer to the Navy in 1956 and several photos of the line's electric cars.
-----. "Happy Birthday, Sacramento Northern." MILEPOSTS, Vol. 8, no. 3 (MILEPOST No. 75). San Francisco, Calif., Western Pacific Railroad: October 1955). A brief history prepared by the WP's Public Relations Department, this piece includes 16 photos, thumbnail shots of company officers, a cover photo and two maps. All the photos except the portraits have appeared in other books, particularly those by Ira Swett.
-----. "New Power for S.N." TRAIN SHEET, Issue no. 27. Portola, Calif., Feather River Rail Society: September-October 1987. This brief news item on SN F-3s is a reprint from September 1957 MILESPOSTS. Two photos are included.
-----. "Picnic Trains to Redwood Canyon." OAKLAND TRIBUNE, KNAVE SECTION, Oakland, Calif.: June 16, 1968. This is a fairly large feature article on early excursion service over the OA&E. Two photos from the Vernon Sappers collection are included.
-----. "Sacramento Northern." WESTERN RAILROADER, Vol. 13, no. 128. San Mateo, Calif., June 1950. A miscellaneous collection of ten SN photos, this article has no text. Several of the photos have not been printed elsewhere.
-----. "Sacramento Northern Marine Division." TRAIN SHEET, Issue no. 23. Portola, Calif., Feather River Rail Society: January-February 1987. A brief story about the car ferry Ramon, apparently reprinted from MILEPOSTS, this piece includes one photo. It is accompanied by a condensed version of the Belden article cited below with one small scaled drawing.
-----. "Sacramento Northern Oroville Branch." WESTERN RAILROADER, Vol. 43, No. 476. San Mateo, Calif., Francis Guido: May-June 1980. A one page history of the Oroville Branch, this brief article includes four clear photos of St. Louis-built combine 107.
-----. "Sacramento Northern RR." TRAINS, Vol. 1, No. 3. Milwaukee, Wis., Kalmbach Publishing Co.: March 1940. A general overview of the SN at the end of passenger operation, this article includes 14 photos and a map.
-----. "Sacramento Northern's GE Steeplecab Locomotives, Nos. 650-654." MODEL RAILROADER, Milwaukee, Wis., Kalmbach Publishing Co.: September 1977. Nicely rendered drawings of SN's last steeple cabs are supported by a map and ten photos.
-----. "Sacramento Northern's 50th Anniversary." WESTERN RAILROADER, Vol. 19, No. 1, Issue 193. San Mateo, Calif., Francis Guido: November 1955. A sixteen page issue devoted mainly to the SN, this publication includes narrative, three maps and 16 photos, some never published before.
-----. "Southern Division of the Sacramento Northern." WESTERN RAILROADER, Vol. 2, No. 5. San Mateo, Calif., Francis Guido: March 1939. This brief survey of South End history covers just three pages. Includes one photo of "The Comet" east of Oakland. Also of interest is a short history and roster of the Bay Point & Clayton, which connected with the SN at Clyde.
-----. "Street Railways of Sacramento." WESTERN RAILROADER, Vol. 19, No. 12, Issue 204. San Mateo, Calif., Francis Guido: October 1956. This article is primarily about PG&E and CCT streetcar lines, but has a half-page text and three photos of SN streetcars. SN routes can be picked out on the city map of PG&E lines.
-----. "The Way it Was." RAILWAY QUARTERLY, Vol. 3, Issue 4. Canoga Park, Calif.: Challenge Publications, 1979. In six pages, this article gives a brief overview of SN's last electric operation between Yuba City and Marysville. Includes 10 photos.
Asay, Jeff S. TRACK AND TIME, AN OPERATIONAL HISTORY OF THE WESTERN PACIFIC RAILROAD THROUGH TIMETABLES AND MAPS. Portola, Calif.: Feather River Rail Society, 2006. This outstanding work is an exploration of WP history and operations through photos, maps and timetables. One chapter is devoted to the SN, and includes a brief, but very complete history, including a tabular list of abandonments. The text is supported by 19 mostly never-before published photos of depots and facilities (sadly, only two north of Sacramento, and no towers). Additionally, there are 10 maps or inserts, some classics from old timetables that have been seen before, and others completely new.
Bail, Eli. "Buses of the Sacramento Northern." MOTOR COACH AGE: January-March 2002. [S.l. , s.n.] One of the most overlooked aspects of SN history was its bus service. The author covers this obscure story in a four page summary, with four photos, a map and a roster.
Barker, A. E. "Moraga." BULLETIN. National Model Railroad Association, Los Angeles, Calif. (?): January 1975. Another of Barker's fine drawings, this rendering of parlor car Moraga includes four photos.
Barker, A. E. OUTSTANDING INTERURBAN CARS (INTERURBANS SPECIAL NO. 6). Los Angeles, Calif., Interurbans: 1948. Largely a collection of A.E. Barker's excellent drawings, this work includes two pages on NE 1010. In addition to a plan and both side and end elevations, there are technical specifications and two photos. The drawing is the same included in Swett's CARS OF SACRAMENTO NORTHERN, but reproduced in a much larger format.
Barker, A.E. "Sacramento Northern Wood-sheathed combine." MODEL RAILROADER. Milwaukee, Wis., Kalmbach Publishing Co.: November 1967. This single page article includes front, rear and right side elevations, plus a partial floor plan, of combine 107 drawn to 3/16" scale. There are no photos, but a single paragraph of text is included.
Belden, Charles J. "Large Motor-driven Railway Train Ferry." INTERNATIONAL MARINE ENGINEERING, Simmons-Boardman Publishing Co.: July 1915. This three page article introduces the famed car ferry Ramon. Five line drawings are included, with both deck plan and beam elevations, plus three very poor photos of the hull under construction. This is the complete text and graphics of the article condensed under the title of "Sacramento Northern Marine Division" cited above.
Benedict, Roy G., and McFarlane, James R. NOT ONLY PASSENGERS, HOW THE ELECTRIC RAILWAYS CARRIED FREIGHT, EXPRESS AND BAGGAGE. Chicago, Ill., Central Electric Railfans' Association: 1992. This work is a very interesting study of trolley freight operations, concentrating mostly on eastern and midwestern lines. There are several brief mentions of SN operations in the text, plus two photos, one of WP caboose 795 in SN service.
Boyd, Jim. "Equipment of the Western Pacific." RAILROAD MODEL CRAFTSMAN. Newton, N. J., Carstens Publications: November 1972. This article is primarily concerned with WP diesels, but includes four black and white views of SN engines and an abbreviated roster.
Burg, William. SACRAMENTO'S STREETCARS. Charleston, S.C., Arcadia Publishing: 2006. Bill Burg presents an excellent little photo book covering the history of street railways in the capitol city from horsecars of the 1870s to today's Sacramento Regional Transit system. The book is in Arcadia's standard format, short on text, but with around 200 photos. The photo cutlines are very well researched, and quite informative. All of the known operators are covered, with emphasis on the PG&E/Sacramento City Lines. A 14-page chapter on the Sacramento Northern and its predecessors includes 25 photos (some never before seen), and a map. SN coverage extends to West Sacramento, the Swanston Branch and the Elverta Scoots, but sadly does not include the Woodland Branch. Interurbans, freight equipment and streetcars are all included. A few photos in other chapters show SN equipment alongside cars from the CCT or PG&e, plus a 1951 fan-trip over the SN using Saskatoon streetcar 12.
Burrowes, Robert A. SACRAMENTO NORTHERN RAILWAY EQUIPMENT ROSTER. [S.l. , s.n.] : 1976. This brief publication was a present for members of the Electric Railway Historical Association annual banquet. In five pages, it lists all the SN's passenger cars, streetcars, locomotives and buses. The entries are brief, giving the type of equipment, builder, date, and dispostion. There are no illustrations.
Campbell, Robert. A. "Oscar's engines." CONCORD HISTORIAN. Concord, Calif., Concord Historical Society: November 1997. In two pages, the author provides a brief history of the OA&E, plus some personal reminiscences of watching trains at Concord in the early 1950s. Includes three photos of electric locomotives.
Campbell, Robert A. "Riding the 654 with Les Paul," and "The black widows of the Sacramento Northern." CONCORD HISTORIAN. Concord, Calif., Concord Historical Society: August 1998. Two additional short articles continue Mr. Campbell's excellent stories of watching trains at Concord during the final years of electric operation. Includes two locomotive photos.
Campbell, Robert A. "Sacramento Northern Memories." CONCORD HISTORIAN. Concord, Calif., Concord Historical Society: Part 1, November 1996; part 2, July 1997. More of Mr. Campbell's delightful accounts of SN operations at Concord during the 1950s.
Campbell, Robert A. "The Walwood Branch." CONCORD HISTORIAN. Concord, Calif., Concord Historical Society: August 2000. Mr. Campbell's interesting story of an obscure, but unique OA&E branch.
Cavalier, Julian. "Sacramento Northern 50-foot Boxcars 2401-2500." RAILROAD MODEL CRAFTSMAN. Newton, N. J., Carstens Publications: December 1978. With their 6-panel Superior doors, SN's 50-foot double-door PS-1 boxcars were a rarity (the WP was the only other road known to use this configuration). Cavalier's article offers HO scale side and end elevations, two photos and a brief text.
Clegg, Adam. WESTERN PACIFIC COLOR PICTORIAL, VOLUME ONE. La Mirada, Calif.; Four Ways West Publications: 2001. A must for lovers of WP's orange-and-silver era, this is an all-color collection of locomotive photos, mostly from the pre-green days. Eleven pages are devoted to the SN, showing most of the diesels in various paint schemes, and includes five shots of steeple cab motors at Marysville/Yuba City. A roster is included, though it does not give the ultimate fate of locomotives that were resold or scrapped by later owners. It also misses WP F-3 804D, which was actually owned by the SN and leased to the WP. There are also a number of mis-identified locations in the cutlines (one in the SN section), and the book is filled with typographical errors, but these problems are worth overlooking for the great pictures.
Demoro, Harre W. CALIFORNIA'S ELECTRIC RAILWAYS, AN ILLUSTRATED REVIEW. Glendale, Calif., Interurban Press: 1986. Typical of big format railroad books, this publication is lavishly illustrated with photos from every known electric railroad operations in California (less some industrials). Twelve pages are devoted to the SN, with 23 photographs, several never before published.
Demoro, Harre W. "Deluxe Service on the Sacramento Northern." PASSENGER TRAIN JOURNAL, Vol. 23, No. 8. Glendale, Calif., Interburbans Publications: August 1992. Demoro nicely covers the history of SN's parlor car and dining service. Includes ten photos and a map in six pages.
Demoro, Harre W. "Fastest Interurbans in the West, Did the Sacramento Northern (and Pacific Electric and Bamberger et. al.) really run as fast as BART?" PACIFIC RAIL NEWS, no. 290. Burlingame, Calif., Chatham Publishing: January 1988. The author compares the speed performance of various interubran railroads and discusses their operating problems. Two SN photos are included.
Demoro, Harre W. "Sacramento Northern." LOCOMOTIVE & RAILWAY PRESERVATION, No. 17. Richmont, Vermont, Mark Smith: 1988. Demoro again provides us with a general overview of the SN, though part of the text is written from the point of view of a 1936 rider on the line's top passenger train,The Comet. A number of interesting anecdotes are included that give the story great color. Included are 18 photos, a ticket and an excellent map.
Demoro, Harre W. "Secondhand Traction: Later Careers in the Bay Area." PACIFIC RAIL NEWS, No. 281. Burlingame, Calif., Chatham Publishing: April 1987. Many California interurbans, trolleys and freight motors had several owners during their lives. Demoro discusses various boomer cars on California lines, including the SN. Only one SN photo is included.
Demoro, Harre W. , and Sappers, Vernon J. RAILS TO SAN FRANCISCO BAY. New York, Quadrant Press: 1992. An interesting survey of all the different railroads that served the San Francisco Bay area, this book is by nature brief. The SN section is but four pages long, with eight photos. There is an additional shot of SN 442 on the Oakland Terminal in the Key System section. Some of the non-SN topics rarely covered elsewhere make this book very interesting, including car floats and tugs, the San Francisco Belt Railway, the Alameda Belt Line and two shots of SP's sole RDC car.
Dorn, Dick, and Walker, John S. "Without wires: Sacramento Northern in the Diesel Era." PACIFIC RAIL NEWS, No. 338. Burlingame, Calif., Chatham Publishing: January 1992. This article provides an overview of operations during the final years, plus information on UP operations. Includes 17 photos in 12 pages.
Duke, Donald. ELECTRIC RAILWAYS AROUND SAN FRANCISCO BAY, VOL 2. San Marino, Calif., Golden West Books: 2000. Duke devotes 13 pages, 26 photos, and a map to the Sacramento Northern. Four photos are from the OA&E era, and have been seen many times before. The rest are largely the work of Charles Savage, and most have not been published before. Coverage is mainly from the Oakland and East Bay area, but includes three shots from Sacramento.
Dunscomb, Guy L., and Stindt, Fred A. WESTERN PACIFIC STEAM LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER TRAINS AND CARS. Modesto, Calif., Dunscomb and Stindt (privately published): 1980. Surely the most exhaustive and carefully researched work on the WP to date, this book gives a passing nod to the SN. The major SN item describes the final disposition of five Hall Scott trailer coaches which went to the WP in 1941 for limited service on the Highline. A photo of one car, plus a very attractive painting of two cars and a caboose behind 2-6-6-2 No. 210, support the brief text. Also included are SN maps from 1929 and 1967.
Eager, Jim. WESTERN PACIFIC COLOR GUIDE TO FREIGHT AND PASSENGER EQUIPMENT. Scotch Plains, N.J., Morning Sun Books, Inc.: 2001. Long anticipated by SN and WP fans, this outstanding book delivers a rich collection of color photos. There are 16 SN shots, including examples of most of steel-era freight cars. In addition, the caboose section includes color views of 1626 in the experimental orange colors, and 1627 in the two-tone "Zephyr" scheme.
Edwards, J. Paulding. "New 82-ton Electric Locomotive of the Northern Electgric Railway." ELECRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. New York, McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.: June 10, 1911. Edwards, NE's Electrical and Mechanical Engineer, wrote a very complete three-page description of NE 1010, describing not only construction details, electrical equipment, performance results, but even the paint scheme (it was mostly orange!). Included are both plan and side elevations, with partial cut-away views, plus two photos.
Emmanuels, George. WALNUT CREEK, ARROYO DE LAS NUECES. Walnut Creek, Calif., [s.n.]: 1984. This book includes a chapter on SN operation from the passengers' perspective, and has some interesting annecdotes. A chapter is also included on the area's main industrial plant (and SN customer), the Contra Costa Walnut Growers' Association. According to Bob Campbell, who worked at the nut plant, there are a number of factual errors, particularly with regard to the 1957 plant closure (it was actually several years later). Despite the errors, the book still makes interesting reading.
Gray, Tom. "Sacramento Northern: Electrics Through the Oakland Hills." PACIFIC NEWS, No. 126. Burlingame, Calif., Chatham Publishing Col.: April 1972. Strictly a photo essay, this article presents 15 photos by Tom Gray on freight operations east of Oakland during the 1950s. One simple map accompanies the photos.
Harrison, James H. "Sacramento Northern--East Bay Memories." LARK, No. 37. Oakland, Calif., Derailed Again Press: May 6, 1988. A brief story of SN freight operations through the Oakland Hills, it includes a nice map and two poor photos (photocopy). There aparently was a second part to this article which your editor does not own (darn!).
Heise, C. E., and Kirker, G. B. "Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Railway." WESTERN RAILROADER, Vol. 134, No. 12. San Mateo, Calif., Francis Guido: December 1971. This is a reprint of an article from the October 1913 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. The original photos are quite poor, but show some interesting shots of OA&E equipment and settings. Several other photos were added by Guido and are much clearer.
Hilton, George W., and Due, John F. ELECTRIC INTERURBAN RAILWAYS IN AMERICA. Stanford, Calif., Stanford University Press: 1960, 1964. This classic encyclopedia of interurban railways devotes two pages to a thumb-nail sketch of the SN. A separate paragraph outlines the history of the Sacramento Valley West Side Electric Railway (operated as SN's Dixon Branch). A general map showing all lines in northern California accompanies the chapter.
Holmes, Norman W. MY WESTERN PACIFIC RAILROAD. Reno, Nev., Steel Rails West Publishing Co.: 1996. This book is an excellent account of the history of the Western Pacific, as told by one of its career locomotive engineers. A sidebar includes a brief history of the SN, with four photos, one piece of line art and a map.
Holmes, Norm. "WP's First Diesel Donated." TRAIN SHEET, Issue no. 27. Portola, Calif., Feather River Rail Society: September-October 1987. This brief news item concerns the donation of WP 501 (SN 401), and includes a photo in SN lettering and a shop drawing.
Irion, Tom. "Still a Unique Shortline ... Sacramento Northern." PACIFIC NEWS, Vol. 12, No. 8 (No. 130). Burlingame, Calif., Chatham Publishing Co.: August 1972. This seven-page story examines the diesel-era SN, and includes several nice photos of larger SN diesel engines.
Jarrow, Miles; Covert, Roy E.; and Quinby H. Dean. "Sacramento: Sacramento City Lines, Pacific Gas & Electric, Sacramento Northern RR., Central California Traction." HEADLIGHTS, Vol. 10, No. 4. Hoboken, New Jersey, Electric Railroaders Association, Inc.: April 1948. This brief article recaps the end of electric service over streetcar lines in Sacramento. There are four pictures, sadly none of SN equipment. Included is a full page map of Sacramento, and a smaller map of Chico.
Laflin, Addison, Jr. "The Vallejo Northern and other Electric Railroads of Solano County." WESTERN RAILROADER, [Vol. 15, no. 158 (?)]. San Mateo, Calif., December (?) 1952. The Vacaville and Dixon branches, some of the SN's more obscure operations, are detailed in this article. Twelve SN illustrations and a map accompany the text, though most are wild photos that have no relation to the subject.
Matthews, Fred. NORTHERN CALIFORNIA RAILROADS. Denver, Colo., Sundance Publishing Co., 1982. This work includes 16 pages of SN photos, mostly of freight motors.
Mehndar, J. "NYO&W's Orphan F's." PACIFIC NEWS, Vol. 15, No. 2 (No. 160). Burlingame, Chatham Publishing Co.: February 1975. A one-page text on the history of SN's F-3 diesels, this article includes one black and white photo and a very nice color cover.
Middleton, William D. FROM BULLETS TO BART. Chicago, Ill., Central Electric Railfans' Association: 1989. This is a general work on traction lines, devoting but two pages to the SN. Five very interesting photos are included.
Middleton, William D. INTERURBAN ERA. Milwaukee, Wis., Kalmbach Publishing Co.: 1961. This general work includes a ten-page section on the SN. The text is brief, but there are 12 very nice photos, including a spectacular two-page spread of a freight train on the Lison trestle.
Middleton, William D. TRACTION CLASSICS. San Marino, Calif., Golden West Books: 1983. Volume One of this interesting work includes a five-page chapter on the OA&E's Holman-built combines (1003-1006). Nine excellent photographs are included. Volume Three includes several photos and references to various SN freight motors scattered throughout its text.
Miller, Bob. "Clang, Clang, Clang Went the Trolley." CALIFORNIA'S CROSSROADS. [S. l., s. n.]: January 1983. This pleasant little article, aimed at a lay audience, gushes about the romance of riding SN streetcars and interurbans. Included are three color shots of cars at the Western Railroad Museum, plus some interesting line art.
Monger, Wayne. "SN's Chico Local." CCT BOARD, Issue #75. Oroville, Calif., Hyrail Pubications: September 1981. A very nicely done article on the last years of diesel operation at Chico, this story features eight photos a detailed map. Don't miss the "Donut Nook" sign at the top of page 11, a great detail for modelers.